High Hibernate Interview Questions and Solutions in 2022

Hibernate Interview questions

A Java-based framework, Hibernate framework permits a Hibernate Developer to map plain outdated Java objects to relational database tables. It helps by simplifying the event of Java utility to work together with the database. It’s an open supply, light-weight, and transportable framework. Hibernate framework offers a platform for mapping an object-oriented area mannequin to a relational database.

The hibernate framework frees builders from knowledge persistence-related complicated configurations and duties by mapping plain outdated java initiatives or POJO objects with the database tables in an environment friendly and summary method. Aside from abstraction, queries are additionally executed effectively. Thus, saving the event time.

This weblog will introduce you to the generally requested hibernate interview questions that can enable you ace your upcoming interviews.

  1. What’s Hibernate?
  2. What’s the ORM instrument?
  3. What are the core interfaces of Hibernate?
  4. Point out a few of the benefits of utilizing ORM over JDBC?
  5. Clarify Hibernate structure.
  6. Outline standards when it comes to Hibernate.
  7. Checklist a few of the database supported by Hibernate.
  8. Point out two parts of Hibernate configuration object?
  9. Checklist the important thing parts of Hibernate.
  10. How is SQL question created in Hibernate?

The weblog has been divided into two foremost sections, primary interview questions and intermediate interview questions. Let’s get began.

Desk of Contents

  1. Fundamental Hibernate Interview Questions
  2. Intermediate Hibernate Interview Questions
  3. Hibernate FAQs

Fundamental Hibernate Interview Questions

1. What’s Hibernate?

Hibernate is an object-relational mapping instrument that’s going to simplify the java utility interplay with the Database. It offers the ability to map the java lessons to relational database tables and Java knowledge sorts to SQL knowledge sorts. which suggests utilizing hibernate we are able to simplify the java improvement effort to speak to the database. It’s an open-source persistent framework began by Gavin King in 2001.

2. What’s the ORM instrument?

ORM stands for object-relational mapping is a programming approach for changing knowledge between a relational database and an object-oriented programming language corresponding to java, c#, and so on.

Benefit of ORM instrument over JDBC.

  1. It hides the SQL queries from object-oriented logic
  2. The quick improvement of utility
  3. Transaction administration and computerized key technology.
  4. No have to take care of the database implementation.

3. What are the core interfaces of Hibernate?

The 5 core interfaces are utilized in nearly each Hibernate utility. utilizing these interfaces you’ll be able to retailer and retrieve persistent objects and management transactions.

  1. Session interface: That is the first interface utilized by hibernate purposes. The occasion of this interface are light-weight and are cheap to create and destroy. Hibernate classes should not thread-safe.
  2. Session Manufacturing facility interface: It is a manufacturing facility that delivers the session objects to hibernate purposes. Usually, there can be a single SessionFactory for the entire utility and it is going to be shared among the many utility threads.
  3. Configuration interface: This interface is used to configure and bootstrap hibernate. The occasion of this interface is utilized by the applying with a purpose to specify the placement of hibernate-specific mapping paperwork.
  4. Transaction interface: That is an non-obligatory interface however the above three interfaces are necessary in each utility. This interface abstracts the code from any sort of transaction implementation corresponding to a JDBC transaction.
  5. Question and standards interface: This interface permits the consumer to carry out queries and in addition management the circulate of the question execution.

4. Point out a few of the benefits of utilizing ORM over JDBC?

A few of its benefits over JDBC are:

  1. It hides the SQL queries from object-oriented logic
  2. Quick improvement of utility
  3. Transaction administration and computerized key technology.
  4. No have to take care of the database implementation.
  5. No have to take care of the SQL Queries to avoid wasting and retrieve the information.
  6. Straightforward to be taught and use.
  7. Glorious cashing help for the higher efficiency of the applying.
  8. Easy configuration

5. Clarify Hibernate structure.

There are a lot of objects within the Hibernate Structure corresponding to persistent object, session question, session manufacturing facility, transaction, and so on. The purposes which are developed with the assistance of Hibernate may be divided into 4 elements:

  1. Java Utility
  2. Hibernate Framework (Configuration & Mapping)
  3. Inside API (JDBC, JTA, JNDI)
  4. Database (MySQL, PostGreSQL, Oracle)

Let’s speak about the primary parts in a Hibernate Structure.

  1. SessionFactory – Holds a second-level cache of information and offers the manufacturing facility technique to get session objects and shoppers of ConnectionProvider.
  2. Session – A brief-lived object which acts as an interface between database knowledge and the java utility objects. It has first-level cache of information and can be utilized to generate question, transaction, and standards objects.
  3. Transaction – It’s an non-obligatory ingredient of the Hibernate Structure and specifies the atomic unit of labor and has strategies which are helpful for transaction administration.
  4. ConnectionProvider – It’s an non-obligatory ingredient and offers an abstraction to the applying from DriverManager.
  5. TransactionFactory – Once more an non-obligatory ingredient. It’s a manufacturing facility of transaction objects.

6. Outline standards when it comes to Hibernate.

The hibernate Session interface offers createCriteria() technique, which can be utilized to create a standards object that returns cases of the persistence object’s class when your utility executes a standards question.

Instance of standards:

Standards cr = session.createCriteria(GreatLearning.class);

Checklist outcomes = cr.checklist();

7. Checklist a few of the database supported by Hibernate.

Given under is the checklist of hottest database administration methods –

  1. SolarWinds Database Efficiency Analyzer
  2. Oracle RDBMS
  3. IBM DB2
  4. Altibase
  5. Microsoft SQL Server
  6. SAP Sybase ASE
  7. Teradata
  9. MySQL
  10. FileMaker
  11. Microsoft Entry
  12. Informix
  13. SQLite
  14. PostgresSQL

8. Point out two parts of Hibernate configuration object?

It’s often created solely as soon as throughout utility initialization. It represents a configuration or properties file required by the Hibernate.

The Configuration object offers two keys parts –

DATABASE CONNECTION – That is dealt with by means of a number of configuration recordsdata supported by Hibernate. These recordsdata are hibernate. Properties and hibernate.cfg.xml.

CLASS MAPPING SETUP − This element creates the connection between the Java lessons and database tables.

9. Checklist the important thing parts of Hibernate.

  • Session
  • Transaction
  • Question
  • Standards
  • Configuration
  • SessionFactory

10. How is SQL question created in Hibernate?

The entity supervisor interface offers a technique referred to as create native profession keep away from this technique returns an implementation of equilibria interface which is similar as should you name the create question technique to create fairness the code to a JPA.


Name EntityManager.createNativeQuery(String question)technique.
Question q=em.createNativeQuery(“SELECT a.firstname,a.lastname”+”FROM Writer a”);
Create hibernate.cfg.xml configuration file 
Create Worker.hbm.xml mapping file 
Create Worker.java supply file and compile it.
Create ManageEmployee.java supply file and compile it.
Execute ManageEmployee binary to run this system.

11. Tips on how to allow Hibernate in home windows 10?

To allow hibernate in home windows 10, click on on Home windows (image)+R, you then see the underside of the window in that kind energy choices or if u say like Cortana, simply say “Hey Cortana launch energy choices”. One other technique to get the ability choice within the management panel. From the left column, choose select what the ability buttons do

Subsequent, if choices are greyed out, choose change settings which are presently unavailable. Scroll down and verify to hibernate field, after that ensure that save your settings.

Now, while you open the beginning menu and choose the ability button the hibernate choice can be out there. Then click on on Alt+f4 then following the steps above provides the hibernate mode choice as effectively.

12. What’s the dialect in hibernate?

For connecting hibernate utility with database then we should specify the SQLDialect, which comprises the mapping between java language knowledge kind and database datatypes. There are a lot of dialect lessons for outlining the RDBMS.

Hibernate makes use of dialect configuration to know which database you’re utilizing in order that, it could possibly swap to the database-specific SQL generator. Hibernate generates all of your entity mappings and hibernate queries to Particular database queries and makes use of JDBC to execute them.

13. What’s n+1 downside in hibernating?

I wish to inform one downside relating to n+1 in hibernate to grasp this resolution.

Allow us to assume you will have a lot of staff in an organization and each worker have some variety of initiatives. So, one to many relations between worker and initiatives. now it’s important to iterate by means of the gathering of worker and show all of the initiatives identify they’ve so the Question will seem like this:

SELECT * FROM worker
SELECT * FROM initiatives WHERE employeeId=?

Right here you will have 1 choose assertion for the worker and when you have n quantity staff it’s important to write another question to pick out the initiatives. So on the final, it’s important to put n+1 choose assertion with a purpose to carry out this operation.

Now the following query is  remedy it?

Utilizing be part of fetching(it’s going to be part of the father or mother and youngsters and fetch all the knowledge in a single assertion) we are able to in a position to remedy the n+1 downside. Our subsequent question will seem like this:

FROM worker e JOIN FETCH e.initiatives p

14. Tips on how to allow second-level cache in hibernate?

To allow second-level cache we have to comply with some factors relating to cache, First stage cache enabled by default. Every time we’re loading any object from the database, Then hibernate confirm whether or not that object is accessible within the native cache reminiscence of that exact session, means first stage cache, if not out there then hibernate confirm whether or not the article is accessible in world cache or manufacturing facility cache second-level cache, if not out there then hibernate will hit the database and masses the article from there, after which first shops within the native cache of the session, the primary stage then within the world cache second-level cache.


Session s2=sf.openSession();






15. What’s cascade in hibernate?

Cascading is about persistent actions involving one object propagating to different objects through an affiliation. Cascading can apply to quite a lot of Hibernate actions, and it’s usually transitive. The cascade attribute of the annotation that defines the affiliation says what actions ought to cascade for that affiliation.

Cascade = “all” means to use all main cascade sorts.

As of Hibernate 5.3, these sorts are:

  • delete / take away
  • detach / evict
  • merge
  • lock
  • persist
  • refresh
  • replicate
  • save_update / replace

16. What’s a session in hibernate?

Session is a light-weight object. The session offers bodily connectivity between Java utility and database. the Session can be established every time the Java utility needs to do one thing with the database. The session object can be offered by the SessionFactory object. All of the persistent objects can be saved and retrieved by means of the Session object. The session object have to be destroyed after utilizing it.

The session is used to create, learn and delete operations for cases of mapped entity lessons. Cases could exist in considered one of three states:

  1. Transient
  2. Persistent
  3. Indifferent

17. Tips on how to combine spring with hibernating?

We are able to combine spring with Hibernate utilizing Maven.

  1. No have to outline hibernate.cfg.xml
  2. we offer all our configurations within the spring config file.

Steps for integration:

  1. Configuration cfg=new configuration();
  2. cfg.configure(“hibernate.cfg.xml);
  3. SessionFactory sf=cfg.buildSessionfactory();
  4. Session s=sf.openSession();
  5. Transaction trn=s.beginTransaction();

Steps to create a easy spring ORM utility:

  1. create desk 
  2. spring configuration file
  3. mannequin class 
  4. dao class
  5. check class

18. What’s the sessionFactory in hibernate?

sessionFactory is an interface, which comprises a session occasion from a sessionFactory.there’s a single sessionFactory for the entire utility created throughout utility initialization.

The sessionFactory caches generate SQL statements and different mapping metadata that Hibernate makes use of at runtime. It additionally holds cached knowledge that has been learn in a single unit of labor and possibly reused in a future unit of labor.


SessionFactory sf=configuration.buildSessionFactory();

19. How is the HQL question created?

HQL stands for a hibernating question language, HQL is an object-oriented language, much like SQL, however as a substitute of working on tables and columns, HQL works with persistent objects and their properties 

HQL queries are translated by Hibernate into standard SQL queries.

20. Is SessionFactory a thread-safe object?

Sure, SessionFactory is a thread-safe object, many threads can entry concurrently.

21. What’s Session?

Session merely means a specific interval of time.

It maintains the connection between the hibernate and database, which is accessible within the org.hibernate.Session interface which offers strategies to insert, replace and delete the article.

22. Is Session a thread-safe object?

No, the session just isn’t a thread-safe object, many threads cant entry it concurrently. In different phrases, you can not share it between threads.

23. What’s the distinction between the session.save() and session.persist() technique?

The return kind of the Session.save() technique is java.io.Serializable.It returns the newly generated identifier id worth as a serializable object. Whereas return kind of the session.persist()technique doesn’t return something. 


Serializable ser=session.save(object);

24. What’s the diff between the replace and merge strategies?

Merge is like combining information from a couple of desk (whereas retrieving information from tables primarily based on some situations). The replace is like edit, use to vary the worth of the document. If you’re positive that the session doesn’t include an already persistent occasion with the identical identifier, then use the replace to avoid wasting the information in hibernate

If you wish to save your modifications at any time with out understanding concerning the state of a session, then use merge() in hibernate.

For Ex:

SessionFactory manufacturing facility = cfg.buildSessionFactory();  

Session session1 = manufacturing facility.openSession;

Worker e1 = null;

Object o = session1.get(Worker.class, new Integer(101)); 

s1 = (Worker)o;                                     



Session session2 = manufacturing facility.openSession();           

Worker s2 = null;                                  

Object o1 = session2.get(Worker.class, new Integer(101)); 

s2 = (Worker)o1;                                   

Transaction tx=session2.beginTransaction();         


25. What’s computerized soiled checking in hibernate?  

The automated soiled checking function of hibernating, calls an replace statements mechanically on the article that’s modified in a transaction.

Allow us to perceive it with the assistance of an instance:

SessionFactory sf=cfg.buildSessionFactory();

Session s=manufacturing facility.openSession();

Transaction tx=s.beginTransaction();

Worker e=(Worker)s.get(Worker.class,Integer.valueOf(101));




Right here, after getting worker occasion e and we’re altering the state of e.

after altering the state, we’re committing the transaction. In such a case, the state can be up to date mechanically. This is called soiled checking in hibernate.

26. What’s diff b/w the first-level cache and second-level cache?

First-level cache:

the primary stage cache is the session cache. It’s a necessary cache by means of which all requests should cross. The primary-level cache in hibernate is enabled by default. we can’t disable the primary stage.

The primary stage cache is related to the Session object. The session object is created from SessionFactory and it’s shut misplaced, as soon as the session is closed.it’s retrieved from the database and saved in a first-level cache related to hibernate session.

Second-level cache:

That is an non-obligatory Cache that Hibernate offers. In contrast to the first-level cache which is accessible solely to the session that maintains it, Second-level Cache is accessible to all Periods. The Second Degree cache is by default disabled. Hibernate additionally doesn’t present any caching implementation for that.

27. What’s a transaction in hibernate?

A transaction represents a unit of labor. If u need the database to do some work for u. then u want to begin a transaction and let the database know you’re executed.

Your transaction will commit while you name session.flush().

28. Tips on how to create hibernate initiatives in eclipse?

The steps to create hibernate initiatives in eclipse:

  1. First, create the java challenge in eclipse
  2. Obtain the hibernate from an internet site then it reveals to your obtain hibernate library then hit into the hibernate after obtain, add jar recordsdata to hibernate.
  3. Add MySQL JDBC driver to file
  4. Then, Create a Persistent class with mapping data
  5. After creating persistence class then once more create  the Hibernate Configuration file
  6. Create a Utility class for initializing the SessionFactory
  7. Create Instance code to load the information from Database
  8. After doing all of the above factors right-click on mouse u see run choice then hit on the RUN
  9. Run the Instance.

29. Tips on how to retrieve knowledge from database utilizing hibernate and spring

To retrieve knowledge from the database, you merely leverage the Hibernate classes createQuery technique, cross in some HQL, convert the center of the returned Question object into an easy-to-use Checklist, after which loop by means of the gathering of your POJOs contained within the Checklist.

Hibernate Interview Questions FAQs

What are the disadvantages of hibernate?

A number of the commonest disadvantages of hibernate are efficiency value, doesn’t enable too many inserts, extra complicated joins, poor efficiency in batch processing, studying curve, not good for a small challenge.

What’s SessionFactory in hibernate?

SessionFactory is an interface that may be created by offering an object of configuration, which comprises all property particulars associated to DB. It’s both pulled from hibernate.cfg.xml file or hibernate.properties file. SessionFactory may be referred to as a manufacturing facility for session objects.

What’s the distinction between Session and SessionFactory in hibernate? 

Session objects are one per shopper; whereas SessionFactory objects are one per utility. SessionFactory helps in creating in addition to managing Periods. Session helps in offering a CRUD interface for mapped lessons, and in addition will get right into a extra versatile Standards API.

Is Hibernate good or unhealthy? 

Hibernate is sweet or unhealthy relying on the sort of exhausting disk you will have. Throughout hibernate, the PC actions are frozen, and the state is safely saved on the exhausting disk in an unlimited hibernation file, which is named hiberfil.sys in Home windows methods.

Is hibernate mode protected? 

As in comparison with sleep, hibernate makes use of lesser energy. If you wish to save the battery for an extended time, you’ll be able to put the PC into hibernation.

What’s lazy loading in hibernate?

Lazy Loading is principally a design sample that’s used for deferring initialization of objects, for so long as it’s potential. It enhances the efficiency in hibernate.

Is hibernate unhealthy for SSD? 

Hibernate just isn’t primarily unhealthy for SSD. We are able to simply say, it isn’t that helpful with an SSD. Hibernate lets you begin your work once more after placing it to sleep. Hibernate helps in saving every thing to disk from reminiscence.

Is it higher to hibernate or shut down? 

Placing the PC to hibernate will assist in saving the reminiscence state to a tough drive. It additionally helps in saving energy. Shutting down the PC additionally doesn’t use energy, however when you begin it once more, it’s important to absolutely begin it up and can’t return to the place you left.

Is it OK to hibernate laptops on a regular basis? 

If you wish to hold the PC or laptop computer off for some days, you’ll be able to put it on hibernate mode. Even when you have not saved the recordsdata, nothing can be affected. Nonetheless, maintaining it all the time in hibernate mode just isn’t extremely advisable.

What’s hibernate mode vs. sleep mode?

The hibernate mode saves the knowledge to the exhausting disk, which can allow your pc to be shut down fully and doesn’t use an vitality reminiscence state to a tough drive. Hibernate makes use of much less energy. Once you put the PC to sleep mode, it shops the paperwork in addition to recordsdata that you’re working in RAM and makes use of lesser energy in your entire course of.

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