How Does UPI(Unified Funds Interface) Work?

UPI – Unified Cost Interface was first launched in 2016 with simply 21 banks and had virtually 0 transactions for straight 3 months and is now main the chart globally. The mastermind behind this method was Dr. Raghuram G Rajan (RBI Governer).

From April 2016 to August 2022, the graph has considerably modified, now there are above 345 Banks stay on UPI and a complete variety of transactions has crossed 10,72,792 crores (as of August 2022) and this determine itself is proof that how individuals have change into adaptive on making an increasing number of cashless UPI funds.

How UPI Works


The distinctive half about UPI is that it holds the facility of discarding ATM machines and in addition permits prospects to hyperlink a number of financial institution accounts in a single cellular software. It affords 2 modes of cost i.e. P2P (Peer to Peer) and P2M (Peer to Service provider)

Sooner banks began selling using cashless transactions and it unfold like a fireplace (YOY). Most of you should be questioning how really this entire ecosystem works in only a few clicks. Properly, we’re right here to reply that. Let’s see the insights of UPI and its working metrics.

Advantages of UPI

In the present day, everyone seems to be shifting in direction of UPI transactions for making any small funds, and in addition behind this, there’s a listing of advantages of doing so. Having mentioned, since its first introduction out there, the variety of transactions has crossed 6.2 Billion (stats of July 2022). Why the demand is growing on daily basis? Let’s take a look at a few of the main key pointers under:

  1. UPI is the most cost effective mode of cost and that’s why most banks have declared it Freed from Price. (in contrast to different modes of funds)
  2. It permits prompt cash switch and that too 24×7
  3. Since VPA (Digital Cost Deal with) is the entrance face of the UPI due to this fact, it helps in sustaining the privateness of any particular person
  4. A single UPI software holding a number of accounts makes it extra dependable and also you additionally get the liberty to decide on your choice for “Default Account”
  5. UPI isn’t just about sending cash but additionally you’ll be able to “Request for Cash” too
  6. Over a time frame, many Third-Occasion purposes have entered the market with hefty cashback and that makes it extra interesting for patrons to carry out extra transactions.
  7. Not like different modes of cost, all you want is simply both VPA, QR scanner, or cellular quantity to provoke the transactions (relevant for each receiving and sending cash). 

How Does UPI Work?

UPI affords 2 types of transactions i.e. P2P and P2M ~ Peer-to-Peer and Peer-to-Service provider

For each real-time transaction, sure events are concerned and that’s why it’s additionally known as the 4 Occasion Mannequin, the fashions are:

  1. Payer – Ther one that is initiating the cost
  2. Payee – The one who receives the cost
  3. Beneficiary Financial institution – Involvement of receiver’s checking account
  4. Remitter Financial institution – Involvement of Payer’s Financial institution and hooked up account


  • Obtain the PSP (Cost Service Supplier) app (GooglePay, PhonePay, and many others.)
  • Register 
  • Add Account particulars
  • Generate UPI PIN

* For each PSP app, the cellular SDK is offered by NPCI solely.


For Arduous Binding or System Finger Printing Course of (acts as a First-Issue authentication in UPI)

  • Obtain the PSP app and ship an SMS for cellular quantity verification and be sure that you’re performing this motion with the identical cellular quantity that’s registered with the financial institution.


Buyer Registration 

  • Obtain the PSP app and choose your most well-liked financial institution
  • Now the request might be despatched to the PSP server and it’ll ahead the identical request to the NPCI (of the identical cellular quantity)
  • Now NPCI UPI server will ahead the request to the Issuer Financial institution 
  • Financial institution will retrieve the account particulars to confirm whether or not the quantity is linked to that particular person or not
  • Now, the UPI will move the identical information to the PSP server 

*PSP shops the IFSC and Account Variety of the client to the cellular apps (together with machine data)

  • Now, the client will get all of the linked financial institution accounts of his/her triggered SMS quantity and from there he/she will select the choice 
  • PSP will now create the VPA to proceed forward.



  • Out of your Cellular software, choose the choice to Generate a PIN
  • Now, the PSP server will request an OTP of that checking account to NPCI
  • NPCI will ahead the identical request to the Issuer Financial institution 
  • The OTP might be forwarded again to the client
  • The client will now be required to enter the final 6-digit debit card quantity (together with the expiry date and OTP)

* The carried out motion might be securely captured by NPCI SDK

  • PSP will now ahead the OTP validation request
  • UPI will decrypt the main points (together with PIN) from the PSP key and encrypt with the Issuer key
  • Now, the Issuer financial institution will decrypt the information and can begin validating the main points (resembling debit card no.) and OTP and can retailer the PIN

* Neither the PSP server nor the NPCI can have the authentication to avoid wasting the PIN

Transaction Move

There are typically 2 types of transactions PUSH and PULL, under we are going to perceive the PUSH technique that’s majorly used out there.

Part – I

  • The client initiates the transaction both with Payee’s cellular quantity, or VPA / QR
  • Now, the Payer PSP will ahead the identical request to the NPCI
  • Following that, the NPCI UPI server will ahead the identical request to the Payee’s PSP for handle decision and authorization
  • The payee PSP resolves the handle and supplies the account particulars (works with the Remitter financial institution)

Part – II

  • The Payee PSP will present the financial institution particulars to UPI and the identical might be forwarded to NPCI
  • Now, the NPCI will examine with the remitter financial institution to debit funds from the payer’s account
  • As soon as cash will get debited, a credit score request is shipped to the beneficiary’s financial institution  
  • The beneficiary financial institution credit the Payee’s account and later responds to NPCI UPI
  • Now, the NPCI UPI server passes the response to the standing of the transaction by way of Payer’s PSP to the client
Working of UPI


Key Terminologies

  • VPA – Digital Cost Deal with (offered by PSP). For instance, <title>@psp. <title> may very well be offered by both PSP or prospects can select as per their choice
  • PSP – Cost Service Supplier (offered by NPCI)

What’s the position of PSP?

PSP works with the financial institution to amass new prospects and facilitate cost.

Their major work is to supply front-end cellular purposes to the client and works intently with NPCI and banks. In addition they guarantee the entire ecosystem of the transaction stream goes flawless.

*They can not work by themselves as a person physique so they’re sure to work with NPCI.

Who could be PSP?

  • Banks
  • Third-Occasion Functions

NPCI – Nationwide Funds Company of India

A checking account can have a number of VPA handles-

  • Instance: HDFC Financial institution has a number of VPA’s. HDFC App – @hdfc, GooglePay – @okhdfc, PhonePay – @ybl

1 PSP can have a number of Financial institution handles-

  • Instance: GooglePay. AXIS Financial institution – @okaxis, HDFC – @okhdfc, ICICI – @okicici, SBI – oksbi

QR – Abbreviated as “fast response”. It’s a metric that holds data horizontally and might carry out each horizontal and vertical motion.

Tasks of the Concerned Events 

  1. Payer PSP
    • Buyer onboarding
    • To create a UPI ID
    • Create machine binding (first-factor authentication)
  2. Payee PSP
    • On-board buyer/service provider
    • facilitate cash switch/cost to the recipient utilizing UPI
  3. Remitter Financial institution
    • Maintain & Debit Checking account for the transaction
    • Retailer and confirm UPI PIN
  4. Beneficiary Financial institution
    • Course of incoming credit and funds into the beneficiary account

The place You Can Make Cost Through UPI?

After doing profitable motion to arrange the account, you are able to do the next job along with your UPI software.

  • Now you can merely enter contact particulars to switch funds (additionally to those that aren’t in your contact ebook) 
  • Cash could be transferred by way of VPA as properly. (VPA is like an e-mail id for each particular person’s account)
  • You may carry out each actions i.e. sending and receiving funds (by way of Contact quantity, VPA, or QR)
  • A consumer can carry out different options like doing financial institution transfers to self and others’ accounts, checking balances, and many others. 
  • Now retailers are permitting customers to make invoice funds for his or her wants (resembling broadband, electrical energy, and many others.)

How Protected Is It?

With the rising digitalization, it’s simply to guarantee that the transaction you’re doing is secure. Whereas performing any UPI transaction, there are probabilities that phishers might attempt to breach and do any fraudulent actions. To reply this right here’s a fast information to stop any unavoided actions.

  • You have to all the time keep away from sharing your credentials (resembling PIN, Password, or any delicate data)
  • By no means save your card particulars (debit/credit score) whereas performing any transaction
  • There are a bunch of fraud apps out there out there at present, keep away from downloading them in your telephone as they could get entry to your pockets or different associated apps.
  • In the event you’re about to obtain any funds, carry out secure strategies for doing so (resembling QR, Telephone numbers solely) and be sure that you’re not sharing any OTP
  • Sure circumstances have been reported of fraudulent actions (resembling cloning, unsecured hyperlinks, and many others.) so it’s greatest to keep away from visiting such web sites.

As per the Authorities’s Cybersecurity division, greater than 60,000 fraud actions had been concerned alone within the month of Might 2022. Amongst these 30,000+ complaints had been straight concerned with UPI transactions dented greater than 150 crores. 

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